In the heart of Western Turkey you can find one of the most spectacular sites that combine nature and history. Pamukkale, with its travertine pools, and the ruins of Hierapolis are among the most visited places all over Turkey. And there is a reason if millions of tourists every year flock over the white hills in what is called the castle of cotton (Pamukkale).
In its spring the water is at 36C and contains high concentrated calcium hydro carbonate with the contact of oxygen in the air, calcium carbonate precipitates which makes travertine while carbon monoxide is evaporating. The reaction is Ca(HCO3)+O2 CaCO + CO2 + H2O chemically. The travertines are not in contact with water as seen in postcards or brochures. They are usually photographed when they are full of water and seen beautiful so they are thought as full of water. Thermal water is released to travertine in a certain schedule. Much water in the same place causes moss and unfair view and dirt.
It is necessary to dry the travertine in certain periods to prevent dirt and to provide hardening of the jell density precipitation. It is not fair to walk in the travertines while they are being transformed into hard and white travertines. Only in some artificial pools near the old motor way and 5000 m2 artificial travertine area, can the visitors get in the travertine and walk in the water.
Especially in the Roman Empire period, Hierapolis and its surroundings were an absolute health centre. In those years, thousands of people used to come to the Baths which were more than fifteen, and they used to find their remedy in those baths. Today’s Antique Pool was shaped by the earthquake which happened in the VII Century AD. Thermal springs are natural. Pamukkale thermal water used to be 390 liters/second in the past. It is 260 liters/second nowadays. The area of the thermal pool is one of the sources. The temperature is 36C, and the water is effective on rheumatism, diseases of the eye, skin, heart and blood circulatory system, respiratory system, nerve and muscle system weariness, kidney and urinary system and post operative diseases.